The Brain from Inside Out
Buzsáki, G. The Brain from Inside Out. Oxford University Press (May 2019) [Amazon]

Is there a right way to study how the brain works? Following the empiricist’s tradition, the most common approach involves the study of neural reactions to stimuli presented by an experimenter. This ‘outside-in’ method fueled a generation of brain research and now must confront hidden assumptions about causation and concepts that may not hold neatly for systems that act and react.

György Buzsáki’s The Brain from Inside Out examines why the outside-in framework for understanding brain function have become stagnant and points to new directions for understanding neural function. Building upon the success of Rhythms of the Brain, Professor Buzsáki presents the brain as a foretelling device that interacts with its environment through action and the examination of action’s consequence. Consider that our brains are initially filled with nonsense patterns, all of which are gibberish until grounded by action-based interactions. By matching these nonsense “words” to the outcomes of action, they acquire meaning. Once its circuits are “calibrated” by action and experience, the brain can disengage from its sensors and actuators, and examine “what happens if” scenarios by peeking into its own computation, a process that we refer to as cognition.

The Brain from Inside Out explains why our brain is not an information-absorbing coding device, as it is often portrayed, but a venture-seeking explorer constantly controlling the body to test hypotheses. Our brain does not process information: it creates it.

Rhythms of the Brain
Buzsáki, G. Rhythms of the Brain. Oxford University Press (2006) [Amazon]

Studies of mechanisms in the brain that allow complicated things to happen in a coordinated fashion have produced some of the most spectacular discoveries in neuroscience. This book provides eloquent support for the idea that spontaneous neuron activity, far from being mere noise, is actually the source of our cognitive abilities. It takes a fresh look at the coevolution of structure and function in the mammalian brain, illustrating how self-emerged oscillatory timing is the brain’s fundamental organizer of neuronal information. The small-world-like connectivity of the cerebral cortex allows for global computation on multiple spatial and temporal scales. The perpetual interactions among the multiple network oscillators keep cortical systems in a highly sensitive “metastable” state and provide energy-efficient synchronizing mechanisms via weak links.

In a sequence of “cycles,” György Buzsáki guides the reader from the physics of oscillations through neuronal assembly organization to complex cognitive processing and memory storage. His clear, fluid writing-accessible to any reader with some scientific knowledge-is supplemented by extensive footnotes and references that make it just as gratifying and instructive a read for the specialist. The coherent view of a single author who has been at the forefront of research in this exciting field, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in our rapidly evolving understanding of the brain.

Animal Learning
Buzsáki, G. Natura Press, Budapest, 1984, (in Hungarian) pp.1-142.

We Do, Therefore We Think: Time, Motility, and Consciousness
10 Questions for György Buzsáki


Micro-, Meso- and Macro-dynamics of the Brain
Gyorgy Buzsaki and Yves Christen (eds),
Springer, Heidelberg. 2016, pp 1-172.

Temporal Coding in the Brain
Buzsáki, G., R. Llinas, W. Singer, A. Berthoz and Y. Christen (eds.) ,
Springer, Heidelberg, 1994, pp.1-303.

Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus
Haas, H. L., and Buzsáki, G. (eds.)
Springer, Heidelberg, 1987, pp.1-215.

Electrical activity of the archicortex
Buzsáki, G. and Vanderwolf, C. H. (eds.)
Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, 1985, pp.1-361.


Hippocampus: network physiology
Buzsáki G. Gordon Shepherd (eds.) Neural Microcircuits, MIT Press 2009.

Hilar mossy cells: functional identification and activity in vivo. In: The Dentate Gyrus: a comprehensive guide to structure function and clinical applications
Henze, DA, Buzsáki G. (Helen E. Scharfman, ed.) 2007. 787 pages

Inhibition: Diversity of cortical functions
Buzsáki, G. In: H.L. Roediger III, Y. Dudai , SM Fitzpatrick (eds) Science of Memory: Concepts. Oxford University Press. 2007 pp. 285-289.

Maintenance and modification of firing rates and sequences in the hippocampus: does sleep play a role?
Buzsáki, G. Carpi, D., Csicsvari, J., Dragoi, G, Harris, K.D., Henze, D. A., Hirase, H. In: Maquet, P., Smith, C., and Stickgold, R. (eds). Sleep and Plasticity. Oxford University Press., Oxford. 2003. Pp. 247-270.

Single cell contribution to network activity in the hippocampus
Henze, D. A., and Buzsáki, G. In: T. Ono, G. Matsumoto, R. R. Llinas, A. Berthoz, R. Norgren, H. Hishijo, R. Tamura (eds) Cognition and emotion in the brain. Excerpta Medica. Ingernational congress series 1250. 2003. pp. 161-182.

The cellular synaptic generation of EEG. In: Current Practice of Clinical Encephalography
Buzsáki, G., Traub, R. D. and Pedley, T., (J. S. Ebersole and T. A. Pedley, eds). Lippincott-Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia (3rd edition), 2003. pp. 1-11.

Network oscillations in the hippocampal formation
Buzsáki, G. In: Frontiers of Life. D. Baltimore, R., Dulbecco, F. Jacob, R. Levi-Montalcini (eds). Academic Press, New York. 2000. Volume 4. Pp 575-588.

Two-phase computational model training long-term memories in the entorhinal-hippocampal region
Lörincz, A. and Buzsáki, G. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 911:83-111, 2000.

GABAergic interneuronal networks in the hippocampus
Buzsáki, G., Dragoi, G., Csicsvari, J., Hirase, H., Czurko, A. and Henze D. (2000) D. L. Martin and Olsen, R. W. (eds) GABA in the Nervous System. Lipincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. Pp. 317-336.

State-dependent changes in network activity of the hippocampal formation
Chrobak, J. and Buzsáki, G. In: Handbook of Behavioral State Conrol: Cellular and Molecular Mechanism. R. Lydic and H. A. Baghdoyan (Eds.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.1999. pp. 349-362.

Oscillazioni di reti neuronali nell’ippocampo (Network oscillations in the hippocampal formation)
Buzsáki, G., D. Baltimore, R., Dulbecco, F. Jacob, R. Levi-Montalcini (eds). Frontiere Della Vita, Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, vol. III. (537-548), 1999.

Extracellular recording and analysis of electrical activity: from single cells to ensembles
Nadasdy, Z., Csicsvari J, Penttonen, M. and Buzsáki, G. (1998) In: Neuronal ensembles: Strategies for recording and decoding. (H. Eichenbaum and J. L. Davis, eds.) Wiley-Liss, New York. Pp. 17-55.

The constraint of synaptic potentiation and memory formation by entorhinal-hippocampal network dynamics
Chrobak, J. and Buzsáki, G. In: Long-term potentiation. Vol. 3. HM. Baudry and J. L. Davis (Eds.) MIT Press, Boston, 1997. Pp. 215-232.

Generation of EEG
Buzsáki, G. and Traub, R. D. In: Epilepsy: a comprehensive textbook. (J. Engel, Jr. and T. A. Pedley, eds). Lippincott-Raven Press (1996)

Structural impairment of hippocampal neurons following a single epileptic afterdischarge
Horváth, Z. Hsu, M., Pierre, E., Vadi, D., Gallyas, F. and Buzsáki, G. In: Chronic epilepsy models (U. Heinemann and J. Engel eds.). Raven, NY (1996)

Memory consolidation in the “non-aroused” brain: a physiological perspective
Buzsáki, G., Bragin, A., Chrobak, J. J. and Nadasdy, Z. In: Maturational windows and cortical plasticity: is there a reason for an optimistic view? (B. Julesz, G. Cowan and I. Kovacs, eds.), SFI Studies in the Sciences and Complexity. Addison-Wesley, (1995)

Short-term and long-term changes in the postischemic hippocampus
Hsu, M, Sik, A., Gallyas, F., Horvath, Z., Buzsáki, G. (V. Luine and C. F. Harding, eds.) Annals of the NY Academy of Sciences, NY vol. 743: 121-140, (1994)

Oscillatory and intermittent synchrony in the hippocampus: relevance to memory trace formation
Buzsáki, G., Bragin, A., Chrobak, J. J. , Nadasdy, Z., Sik, A. , Hsu, M. and Ylinen, A. In: Temporal Coding in the Brain (G. Buzsáki, R. Llinas, A. Singer, W. Berthoz and Y. Christen), Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 145-172, (1994).

Kindling-induced changes of protein kinase C levels in hippocampus and neocortex
Buzsáki, G., Hsu, M., Horvath, Z., Hogsburgh, K., Sundsmo, M., Masliah, E. and Saitoh, T. In: Molecular Neurobiology of Epilepsy (G. Avanzini, E. A. Cavalheiro, U. Heinemann, C. Wasterlain and J. Engel., Jr., eds). Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 279-284, (1992)

Network properties of the thalamic clock: role of oscillatory behavior in mood disorders
Buzsáki, G. In: Induced rhythms of the brain (E. Basar and T. H. Bullock, eds.) Birkhäuser, Boston, pp. 235-250, (1992)

Neuronal grafts in epilepsy research
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Surgery of Epilepsy (H. Lüders, ed.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 737-740, (1992)

Fetal tissue grafts modulate neuronal excitability in a chronic model of epilepsy
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Neurotransmitters in epilepsy (G. Avanzini, J. Engel, Jr., R. Fariello and U. Heinemann, eds.). Elsevier, Amsterdam. pp. 271-282, (1992).

Excitatory amino acid receptors in human temporal lobe epilepsy and in animal models
Geddes, J. W., Ulas, J., Buzsáki, G., and Cotman, C. W. In: Excitatory Amino Acids (B. S. Meldrum, F. Moroni, and J. H. Woods, eds.). Raven Press, New York, pp. 749-757, (1991)

Physiological function of granule cells: a hypothesis. In: The hippocampal dentate gyrus and its role in seizures
Buzsáki, G. and Czeh, G. (C. E. Ribak, C. M. Gall and I. Mody, eds.) Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 281-290, (1991)

Long-term potentiation: Does it happen in the normal brain? When and how?
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Memory Mechanisms: A tribute to G.V. Goddard, (M. Corballis, K. White and W. C. Abraham eds.) Erlbaum, N.J. pp. 79-102, (1991)

Role of basal forebrain cholinergic system in cortical activation and arousal
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In Activation to Acquisition: Functional Aspects of the Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System. (R. T. Richardson ed.) Birkhauser, Boston, pp. 115-133, (1991)

Reconstruction of the basal forebrain cholinergic circuits of the aged and yound brain damaged rat
Gage, F. H., Buzsáki, G. and Tuszynski, M. H. In: Current Communications in Molecular Biology: the Molecular Biology of Alzheimer’s Disease, pp. 149-154, (1990)

Experimental therapeutic approaches: Intracerebral grafting and neurotrophic factors. In: Alzheimer’s Disease: Treatment and Long-term Management
Gage, F. H. and Buzsáki, G. (J. L. Cummings and B. L. Miller, eds.) Dekker, New York. pp.353-370, (1990)

Cognitive impairments in aging: therapeutic approaches
Gage, F. H., Chen, K. S., Buzsáki, G. and Higgins, G. In: Mechanisms of memory (L. J. Squire, ed.) Schattauer Verlag, Berlin, (1990)

Spatial organization of physiological activity in the hippocampal formation: relevance to memory formation
Buzsáki, G., Chen,L. S. and Gage, F. H. In: Progress in Brain Research. (J. Storm-Mathisen, H. Zimmer and O. P. Ottersen eds.) Understanding the brain through the hippocampus. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 257-268, (1990)

NGF-dependent sprouting and regeneration in the hippocampus
Gage, F. H., Buzsáki, G. and Amstrong, D. M. In: Progress in Brain Research, (J. Storm-Mathisen, H. Zimmer and O. P. Ottersen eds.) Understanding the brain through the hippocampus. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 357-370, (1990)

Parallel activation of thalamic and cortical neurons by brainstem and basal forebrain cholinergic systems
Steriade, M. and Buzsáki, G. In: Brain Cholinergic Systems (M. Steriade and D. Biesold, eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 3-64,(1990)

Survival, growth and function of damaged cholinergic neurons
Gage, F. H., Tuszynski, M. H., Chen, K. S., Armstrong, D.and Buzsáki, G. In: Central cholinergic synaptic transmission. (M. Frotscher and J. Misgeld, eds.) Springer: Berlin, pp. 259-274, (1989)

CNS grafting: the potential mechanism of action. In: Neural regeneration and Transplantation
Gage, F. H., and Buzsáki, G. (F.J. Seil ed.) Alan R. Liss, New York. pp. 211-226, (1989)

Pathophysiology of the subcortically deafferented hippocampus. In: Neuronal Grafting and Alzheimer’s disease
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. (F. H. Gage, A. Privat and Y. Christen, eds.) Springer: Berlin, pp. 101-119, (1989)

The cholinergic nucleus basalis: a key structure in neocortical arousal
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. In: Central cholinergic synaptic transmission. (M. Frotscher and J. Misgeld, eds.) Springer: Berlin, pp. 159-171, (1989)

Neuronal grafting in the adult hippocampal formation
Gage, F. H. and Buzsáki, G. In: The hippocampus-New vistas (V. Chan-Palay and C. Kohler, eds.) Alan R. Liss, New York pp. 237-255, (1989)

Restoration and deterioration of function by brain grafts in the septohippocampal system
Buzsáki, G., Freund, T., Bjorklund, A. and Gage, F. H. In: Progress in Brain Research (D. M. Gash and J. R. Sladek Jr. eds.). 78: 69-77, (1988)

Neural grafts: Possible mechanisms of action. In: Neural Plasticity: A Lifespan Approach
Buzsáki, G. and Gage, F. H. (T.L. Petit and G.O. Iwy eds.) Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 171-199, (1987)

Hippocampal sharp waves: A physiological correlate of LTP?
Buzsáki, G. and Haas, H. L. In: Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. (H.L. Haas and G. Buzsáki eds.) Springer, Heidelberg, pp. 90-92 (1987)

Generation of hippocampal slow wave patterns
Buzsáki, G. In: The Hippocampus. (R.L. Isaacson and K. Pribram eds.) vol. 3. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 137-167, (1986.)

Restoration of RSA (theta) in the denervated hippocampus by brain transplants
Buzsáki, G., Gage, F. H. and Bjorklund, A. In: Learning and Memory: Mechanisms of Information Storage in the Nervous System. (H. Matthies ed.) Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 137-140, (1986)

Electroanatomy of the hippocampal rhythmic slow wave activity (RSA) in the behaving rat
Buzsáki, G. In: Electrical Activity of the Archicortex. (G. Buzsáki and C. H. Vanderwolf eds.) Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp. 190-211, (1985)

What does the “LTP model” of memory, model? In: Brain Plasticity, Learning and Memory.
Buzsáki, G. (B. Will, P. Schmitt, J.C. Dalrymple-Alford, eds.) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 157-166, (1985).

Hippocampal slow waves: Sources of controversy. In: Neuronal Plasticity and Memory Formation
Buzsáki, G., Grastyan, E., Haubenreiser, J., Czopf, J. and Kellenyi, L. , (C. Ajmone Marsan and H. Matthies eds.) Raven Press, New York, pp. 511-529, (1982)

Why do we need a new theory of learning?
Buzsáki, G. In: Biologiai Tanulmanyok, (V. Csanyi, ed.) Akademiai Kiado, pp. 128-154, (1982) (in Hungarian)

The electrical correlates of the conditioned reflex in the cat
Grastyan, E., Buzsáki, G., Molnar, P. and Lenard, L. In: Functional Significance of the Electric Processes of the Brain. Nauka Press, pp. 11-20, (1977) (in Russian)

Three different functional states reflected by two components of the hippocampal theta wave complex
Grastyan, E., Molnar, P., Buzsáki, G. and Lenard, L. In: The Brain Mechanism, (T. N. Oniani ed.) Metsniereba Publishers, Tbilisi, USSR, pp. 288-295, (1975)